托福基础班阅读讲义

2011托福基础班阅读练习材料 细节题 APPLIED ARTS FINEARTS Sculptures must, stable,which requires mass,weight distribution, stressPaintings must have rigid stretchers so paintmust deteriorate,crack, artistbecause intrudeupon his herconception earlyItalian Renaissance, bronze statues raisedforeleg usually had cannonballunder donebecause otherwords, sculptor'saesthetic intentions, placed necessarystructural compromise clearfrom cannonballquickly disappeared when sculptors learned how internalstructure ironbraces (iron being much stronger than bronze). |Q1: ItalianRenaissance stopped using cannonballs bronzestatues horsesbecause beganusing statuesweigh less statuesinternally aesthetictastes publichad changed over time cannonballsadded too much weight statuesLAKE BAIKAL Crescent-shaped Lake Baikal, ninthlargest lake 385miles (650 km) 46miles (74 km) width,yet largestbody freshwater holdsone-fifth world'stotal fresh water, which morethan fiveGreat Lakes; holdsso much fresh water itsless-than-impressive area because world'sdeepest lake averagedepth 1,312feet (400 meters) below sea level, OlkhonCrevice, lowestknown point, morethan 5,250 feet (1,600 meters) deep. Lake Baikal, which today locatednear Asianpeninsula, mostlikely world'soldest lake beganforming 25 million years ago Asiastarted splitting apart greatfaults. BaikalValley dropped away, eventually filling world'slakes Q2: LakeBaikal? widerthan Itswidth itslength shapedlike newmoon Q3: LakeBaikal lessthan eightother lakes greaterthan anyother freshwater lake fiveGreat Lakes LakeBaikal holdsone-fifth world'swater holdsfive times GreatLakes holdsoneninth world'swater holds20 percent world'sfresh water Q5: OlkhonCrevice LakeBaikal 400meters below sea level deepestpart LakeBaikal 5,000meters deep Q6: LakeBaikal someother lakes formedwhen sections Earthwere moving away from each other fullyformed 25 million years ago todaylocated Asianpeninsula POSTAGESTAMP postagestamp has been around relativelyshort period firstproposed 1837,when Sir Rowland Hill published pamphletentitled "Post Office Reform: Its Importance putforth postalrates should packagetravels shouldinstead postalservices should delivery,rather than after, through postagestamps. ideasproposed Hillwent Englandalmost immediately, othercountries soon followed suit. firstEnglish stamp, which featured QueenVictoria, "pennyblack/ providedenough postage letterweighing 14 grams anydestination. 1843,Brazil nextnation producenational postage stamps, variousareas todaySwitzerland also produced postage stamps later sameyear. Postage stamps five-andten-cent denominations were first approved U.S.Congress i860postage stamps were being issued morethan 90 governmental jurisdictions worldwide Q7: postagestamps were first suggested firsthalf eighteenthcentury secondhalf eighteenthcentury firsthalf nineteenthcentury secondhalf nineteenthcentury Q8: SirRowland Hill believed postagefees shouldhave nothing howheavy collectedafter delivered|Q9: What firstEnglish postage stamp? QueenVictoria. blackpenny 14stamps. lightweightletter. Q10: Brazilintroduced postage stamps beforeEngland beforeSwitzerland UnitedStates afterSwitzerland Qn: postagestamps were 90different countries costfifteen cents UnitedStates twodifferent denominations postagestamps were introduced UnitedStates U.S.Congress introduced "pennyblack stampFLATFISH Members flatfishfamily, sand dabs flounders,have evolutionaryadvantage over many colorfully decorated ocean neighbors bodycoloration differentenvironments. aquaticchameleons have flattened bodies lifealong oceanfloor shallowerareas continentalshelf alsohave remarkably sens 让ive color vision subtlestgradations seabottom sealife around them Information about carriedthrough nervoussystem chromatophores,which pigment-carryingskin cells accuratelyreproduce oceanfloor Each time sanddab flounderfinds itself newenvironment, fishadapts texturearound sanddabs samefamily haveevolved colorfullydecorated Q13: sanddabs haveflattened bodies livealong oceanfloor deepestpart livealong continentalshelf |Q1 statedabout sanddabs floundersEXCEPT overlysensitive seecolors seabottom surroundingsQ15: skincells carrypigment surroundingcolors oceanfloor Q16: sanddabs newenvironments canchange color texturesaround them WRIGLEY CHEWINGGUM Wrigle/s chewing gum actuallydeveloped givenaway otherproducts rather than primaryproduct teenager,William Wrigley Jr. hisfather Chicagoselling soap hadbeen manufactured fivecents, sellingprice did goodprofit margin Wrigleyconvinced his father tencents giveaway cheap umbrellas workedsuccessfully, confirming effectivesales tool. Wrigley establishedhis own company; hiscompany he sellingsoap wholesaler,giving baking soda away promoteeach deal. Over time, bakingsoda cookbookbecame more popular than soap,so Wrigley began newoperation selling baking soda. He began hunting newpremium item giveaway bakingsoda; he soon decided chewinggum. Once again, when Wrigley realized strongerthan originalproduct, he created Wm.Wrigley Jr. Company sellchewing gum. Wrigley started out twobrands gum,Vassar LottaGum, soonintroduced Juicy Fruit lattertwo brands grew popularity,while firsttwo were phased out. Juicy Fruit Wrigley'smain brands dayQ17: youngWilliam hisfather soapsalesman hisfather's factory Q18: youngWrigley originallywell-liked originallypriced fivecents originallyprovided little profit eventuallybecame more popular merchantsIQ19: whenWrigley first founded his own company, he sellingsoap sellingchewing gum givingaway cookbooks usingbaking soda premiumQ20: Wrigleylater soldbaking soda usedchewing gun sellbaking soda soldchewing gum usedbaking soda sellchewing gum Q2i:| According Wm.Wrigley Jr. Company did all followingEXCEPT twobrands addnew brands originaltwo phaseout lasttwo brands phaseout firsttwo brands 推断题TIGER MOTHS One mostbeautiful morethan 100,000 known species orderLepidoptera tigermoths, moths known strikingappeal distinctivecoloration. highlyconspicuous orange-and-black yellow-and-blackpatterns boldlypatterned color combinations animalworld, serving forewarningpotential predators unpleasanttastes functionserved strikingcoloration gardentiger moth, which quitevisually attractive alsopoisonous predators.Certain glands gardentiger moth produce strong toxins circulatethroughout insect'sbloodstream, while other glands secrete bubbles noxiouswarning smell. tigermoth, indeed, clearexample manypredators intuitively understand, brightestcoloration leastsuitable eat.Q22: passageabout orderLepidoptera allmembers morethan 100,000 species allmembers brightlycolored mostlikely fewer than 100,000 species orderQ23: inferredfrom tigermoth sonamed because itscoloration resembles ferociouspredator, like itshabitat samescientific classification tigerQ2 牛What would most likely happen tigermoth? predatorwould predatorwould capture predatorwould predatorwould back away from followingwould mostlikely attacksuccessfully? orangemoth bluemoth greymoth yellowmoth termfilibuster has been usesince mid-nineteenthcentury delayinglegislative action wordcomes from Dutchfreebooter, mostlikely developed from someoneconducting stealaway billhave earlierhistory U.S.Congress, filibusters were used nowmuch more Senatethan HouseBecause muchlarger body than Housenow has rules which greatly limit eachmember may speak, which effectively serves delayinglegislation twobodies, nowrules canconstrain totallyeliminate filibusters. Senateadopted its first cloture rule rulewhich requires limitdebate onehour eachside. nowrequires invokecloture mostsituations. longestfilibuster recordoccurred 1957,when Senator Strom Thurmond SouthCarolina wanted delayvoting civilrights legislation. twenty-fourhours 18minutes August28 29,when Thurmond held readingfrom court decisions newspapercolumns. hishope filibusterwould rally opponents civilrights legislation; however, two weeks after CivilRights Act 1957passed. Q26: inferredfrom around1800 firstfilibuster took place legislativeaction neverdelayed termfilibuster U.S.Congress Dutchintroduced termfreebooter Q27: determinedfrom paragraph mostlikely someone who robbedpassing ships enactedlegislation Dutchgovernment Q28: itsearly years, rulesagainst filibusters hadfew filibusters hadfewer filibusters than longestfilibuster recordIQ29: Based cloturewould most likely initiatefilibusters breakfilibusters extendfilibusters encouragefilibusters Q30: inferredfrom 1975rule change peopleneeded coveredall types Senatevotes SenateQ31: SenatorThurmond

托福基础班阅读讲义

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