TPO25阅读之三(托福阅读真题)

VenetianShipping latethirteenth century, northern Italian cities Genoa,Florence, Venicebegan economicresurgence madethem mostimportant economic centers seventeenthcentury, however, other European powers had taken over, Italiancities lost much economicmight. declinecan seenclearly affectedVenetian shipping trade.First, Venic intermediaryfunctions AdriaticSea, where haddominated otherparties, were lost directtrading. fifteenthcentury littleproblem recruiting sailors galleys(large ships propelled oars):guilds (business associations) were required providerowers, draftsystem free citizens served compulsorily when called earlysixteenth century seriousbecause roundships (round-hulled ships morecargo space), requiredfewer rowers. crewsproved greaterproblem, despite continuous appeal Venic’stradition maritimegreatness. Eventhough sailors’ wages doubled among northernItalian cities from 1550 increasedsupply shippingextended Arsenale,Venice powerfulshipyard. Timber ran short, fromfather fatheraway. ancientRoman times, Italianpeninsula had great forest firpreferred earlyfourteenth century. Arsenale officers first brought timber from fromnorth toward Trieste, finallyfrom across Adriatic.Private shipbuilders were required oakabroad. shipbuildingrose, Venice clung itsoutdated standard while Dutchwere innovation moreeasily handled ships. stepfrom buying foreign timber buyingforeign ships shortone, especially when complaints were heard lattersixteenth century Arsenalewere running down. Work stretchedout donepoorly. Older workers had been allowed stopwork halfhour before regulartime, 1601younger works left them.Merchants complained privilegesreserved ownedships were first extended thoseVenetians who bought ships from abroad ownedvessels. Historian Frederic Lane observes latesixteenth century, shipbuildingindustry longhad haddisplayed conventionalexplanation Venetiandominance Portuguesedirect sea route East,replacing overlandSilk Road from Blacksea highlyprofitable Indian Ocean-caravan-eastern Mediterranean route PortugueseVasco da Gama oyagaaround southern Africa Indiatook place fifteenthcentury, trans-Abrabian caravan route had been cut off politicalunrest. VenetianCouncil finally allowed round ships previouslyreserved merchantgalleys, thus reducing transport cost onethird. Prices spicesdelivered shipfrom easternMediterranean came equalthose spicestransported Paortuguesevessels, bothroutes operationdrove pricefar down. Gradually, Venice distributioncenter silk,dyes cotton, golddecayed, earlyseventeenth century Venice had lost its monopoly southernGermany. Venetian shipping had started declinefrom about 1530-before largevolumes Britishshipping-and clearlyoutclassed Shakespeare(1564-1616) observed Italianshipping had declined, compared British,because expertise.Moreover, Italian sailors were deserting longerrecruited from nobles,were weak declinecan seenclearly affectedVenetian shipping trade.First, Venic intermediaryfunctions AdriaticSea, where haddominated otherparties, were lost directtrading. fifteenthcentury littleproblem recruiting sailors galleys(large ships propelled oars):guilds (business associations) were required providerowers, draftsystem free citizens served compulsorily when called earlysixteenth century seriousbecause roundships (round-hulled ships morecargo space), requiredfewer rowers. crewsproved greaterproblem, despite continuous appeal maritimegreatness. Eventhough sailors’ wages doubled among northernItalian cities from 1550 increasedsupply word“resurgence expansionParagraph word“compulsorily followingcontributed Venetianshipping? AdriaticSea movefrom galleys roundships decreaseddemand Veniceprovided rowers itsgalley EXCEPT Requiringbusiness associations providesailors Recruitingsailors from other cities northernItaly DraftingVenetian citizens word“outdated whydid Venetianshipyards become increasingly expensive? Arsenalekept rising Romanshipyards were using all availablefir trees timberused shipbuildinghad broughtfrom farther fartheraway Venetianstandards required shipbuildersuse top-quality materials. Venetianshipbuilding industry sixteenthcentury EXCEPT workperformed Arsenalehad declined Venetian–builtships were heavy generallyinefficient Arsenaleshipbuilders worked more slowly fewmerchants controlled Venetian-builtships Paragraph sentencesbelow best expresses essentialinformation highlightedsentence passage?Incorrect choices change importantways leaveout essential information. sixteenthcentury showed Venetianshipbuilders lacked hadpossessed Venetianshipbuilding failed quicklyreplace shipslost sixteenthcentury wouldhave done earlier FredericLane noted Venicelost ships sixteenthcentury, showing Venetianshipbuilding longerknown itsreliability. Venetianshipbuilding had been known itshigh quality sixteenthcentury, centuryVenetian ships were poorer quality.Paragraph word“conventional usual10. Why does authormention “Vasco da Gama oyagearound southern Africa indicatehow Portuguesecame enetiandominance explainwhy political troubles resulted usualroutes Venetianscould sailround ships sailorsfrom other countries did Venetianreliance roundships rather than galleys proved weaknessParagraph 11.Which followingcan inferredfrom paragraph VenetianCouncil decisionconcerning roundships? luxurygoods Venetianmerchants. spicetrade Venicehad enjoyed earlier. eventuallyenabled Venetian merchants long-awaitedimprovement shipbuildingindustry Venice.12. According sixteenthcentury spicesdeclined because Germanyestablished monopolies dictatedprices Venetianmerchant galleys competed Venetianround ships spicetrade Morespices were available because both Portuguesewere importing them Increaseddemand silk,dyes, cotton goldmeant peoplehad less money spices.Paragraph 13.Look foursquares indicatewhere followingsentence could rewardstill did attractyoung people hardlife, convictedcriminals slaveswere pressed services.Where would sentencebest fit? Click passage.14. Directions: introductorysentence briefsummary providedbelow. Complete THREEanswer choices mostimportant ideas passage.Some sentences do summarybecause expressideas minorideas Italiancities sixteenthcentury clearlyseen Venetianshipping. Answerchoices Venetianships were famous carryinglarge cargoes luxurygoods around fast,oar-driven galleys. traditionalgalleys rowthem meant Venetianshipping business. VenetianCouncil made sure –ownedships kept special privileges transportingluxury goods Venetianround ships bringing spices silkfrom Easthelped drive prices down so ordinarypeople could afford buythem Venicefailed keepup shipdesign, shipbuildingrose efficiencydeclined. Portuguesedirect sea route Eastadversely affected Venetian trade, Venicefell behind sailingskills.

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